March2019MVPSocialMediaImage-1551378668160

It’s easy to look up how much money you have in your savings account or the real-time value of your stock investments. But determining the dollar value of a home is trickier.

As a seller, knowing your home’s worth helps you price it correctly when you put it up for sale. If you price it too high, it may sit on the market. But price it too low and you may be losing out on a good chunk of money (nobody wants that!). For buyers, it’s important to know a home’s worth before you make an offer. You want your offer to be competitive, but you don’t want to overpay for the property.

Even if you’re not a buyer or seller right now, as a current homeowner you might just be curious about the value of your home. Keeping track of your home’s worth year over year helps you understand the trends in your market. So when you are ready to sell, you can take advantage of a good window of opportunity.

The good news is, a trained real estate agent—who understands the nuances of your particular neighborhood—can determine the true market value of your property … and at no cost to you!

THE THREE TYPES OF HOME VALUES

When you start the process of buying or selling a home, you’ll frequently hear the words appraised value, assessed value, and true market value. It’s important to know the difference between each one so you can make better, informed decisions.

Appraised Value

A professional appraiser is in charge of determining the appraised value of a home. These appraisals are typically required by a lender when a buyer is financing the property. And while the lender is the one requiring this information, the appraiser does not work for the lender.1 Your appraiser should be an objective, licensed professional who doesn’t have allegiance to the buyer, seller, or lender—no matter who is paying their fee.

The number the appraiser comes up with (the appraised value) assures the lender that the buyer is not overpaying for the property. For example, imagine a seller lists a home for $400,000. They reach a deal with the buyer to sell the home for $375,000. However, if an appraiser evaluates the property and determines that the appraised value is actually $325,000, then the lender will not lend for an amount higher than that appraised value of $325,000.2

When figuring out this number, an appraiser will compare the property to similar homes in your neighborhood, and they’ll evaluate factors such as location, square footage, appliances, upgrades, improvements, and the interior and exterior of the home.

Assessed Value

The assessed value of a home is determined by your local municipal property assessor. This value matters when your county calculates property taxes each year. The lower your assessed value, the less property tax you’ll pay.3

To come up with this value, your assessor will evaluate what comparable homes in the neighborhood have sold for, the size of your home, age, overall condition, and any improvements or upgrades that have been made. However, most assessors don’t have full access to your home, so their information is limited.

Assessments are done annually to determine how much property tax you owe. Many counties use a multiplier (typically between 60%-80%) to calculate the final assessed value. So, if the assessor determines that the value of the home is $300,000, but the county uses a 70% multiplier, the assessed value of the home would be $210,000 for tax purposes.4

If your assessed value isn’t as high as you envisioned, don’t sweat it. Many homeowners appeal their assessment in favor of a lower valuation so that they can save money on property taxes. If you’re interested in appealing your property tax assessment, let us know. We offer complimentary assistance and would be happy to help you build your case.

True Market Value

True market value is established by your real estate agent. It basically refers to the value that a buyer is willing to pay for the property. A good real estate agent is an expert in determining true market value because they have hands-on experience buying and selling properties. They understand the mindsets of buyers in your market and know what they’ll pay for a desirable house, townhouse, or condo.

As a seller, knowing your true market value is important because it helps you choose how much to list your property for. It can also help you decide if you want to make any improvements to your home before putting it on the market. Your agent can help you figure out which updates and upgrades will have the biggest impact on your true market value.

WHAT’S THE DEAL WITH ONLINE CALCULATORS?

When figuring out your home’s value, you might be tempted to see what popular real estate sites like Zillow, Redfin, and Trulia have to say. When you use an online calculator to determine your home’s value on these sites, it is just an estimate. It’s not an actual appraisal or the “true market value.” These sites all have their own algorithms for coming up with their estimates. For example, Zillow comes up with their “Zestimates” by calculating “public and user-submitted data, taking into account special features, location, and market conditions.” 5

These online estimates can be a great starting point for opening up the conversation with your real estate agent about your home’s worth. But even Zillow recommends that you use a real estate agent for coming up with the actual market value of your home. The site says that once you get your “Zestimate,” you should still get “a comparative market analysis from a real estate agent.”

Having an agent involved in this process is essential because they understand the market better than a computer ever could. They’re showing property in your city every single day, and they know the particular preferences of buyers and sellers in the area. Young professionals, large families, empty nesters, and other groups are all looking for different things in a home. A local agent has most likely worked with all of them, so they understand what every segment in your market is specifically looking for.

HOW AN AGENT FINDS YOUR HOME’S TRUE MARKET VALUE

So, how does an actual real estate agent determine true market value? They’ll start by doing a comparative market analysis (CMA). This means they’ll compare your home’s features to similar properties in your area. For the CMA, the agent looks at the below factors to influence their assessment of your home’s worth:6

  • Neighborhood sales – Your agent will look at similar, recently sold homes in your neighborhood to see what they sold for and what they have in common with your house.
  • The exterior – What does your home look like from the outside? Your agent will factor in curb appeal, the style of the house, the front and backyard, and anything else that impacts how the house looks to everyone walking and driving by.
  • The interior – This is everything inside the walls of the house. Square footage, number of bedrooms and bathrooms, appliances, and more all influence the overall market value.
  • Age of the home – Whether you have a newer or older home affects the number your agent comes up with as part of their assessment.
  • Style of the home – The style of your home is important because buyers in different markets have different tastes. If buyers prefer ranch-style homes and you have one, then your home may sell for a premium (aka more money!).
  • Market trends – Because a local agent has so much experience in your market, they have their finger on the pulse of your area’s trends and know what buyers are willing to pay for a property like yours.
  • Location, location, location – This one’s probably the most obvious. Your agent will think about how popular the area is, how safe it is, and what schools are like.

A computer algorithm simply can’t take all of these factors into account when calculating the value of your home. The reality is, nothing beats the accuracy of a real estate agent or professional appraiser when it comes to determining a home’s true market value.

YOUR AGENT IS THERE EVERY STEP OF THE WAY

Determining a home’s true market value is a real estate agent’s forte. If you’re a seller, your agent will help you find your home’s market value so you can list it at the right price.

For buyers, your agent will help you determine the value so you can come up with a fair offer. Your agent can also set up a personalized home search on the Multiple Listing Service (MLS) for you so you’ll receive emails of listings that meet your criteria. This will help you see what’s out there in your city and how properties are being priced.

Get a Complimentary Report With Your Home’s True Market Value

Curious about your home’s true market value? Call us to request a free, no-obligation Comparative Market Analysis to find out exactly how much your home is worth!

Sources:

  1. Chicago Tribune – https://www.chicagotribune.com/suburbs/chi-ugc-article-what-is-the-difference-between-market-value-a-2013-09-30-story.html
  1. SFGATE – https://homeguides.sfgate.com/market-value-vs-appraised-value-1206.html
  1. ValuePenguin – https://www.valuepenguin.com/mortgages/what-is-the-assessed-value-of-a-house
  1. Movoto – https://www.movoto.com/blog/homeownership/assessed-value-vs-market-value/
  1. Zillow – https://www.zillow.com/how-much-is-my-home-worth/
  1. com – https://www.realtor.com/advice/sell/assessed-value-vs-market-value-difference/

 

 

OPEN HOUSE: SUNDAY FEB. 17, 2019 12pm-2pm | 164 BALDWIN Road

BaldwinRd164

http://tours.mixedmediaco.com/115321/164-baldwin-birmingham-mi-48009

OPEN HOUSE:164 BALDWIN Road, Birmingham 48009-1356
SUNDAY FEB. 10, 2019 12pm-2pm
4 BD 2.1 BA 2844 SQ FT
MLS# 218101342 $995,000

Stunning, peaceful location in the most sought after area in Birmingham. This gorgeous home backs up to the Rouge River and is just steps away through trails to the Waterfall and Quarton Lake Park. Spacious and sprawling, this home has unique features such as copper gutters, refinished original hardwood floors throughout entire home, Pewabic tile foyer floor and fireplace surround, and eco friendly dyed cement baths. Dual staircases and a high-end gourmet kitchen with exquisite Vermont Verde Antique marble countertops, new stainless steel appliances and custom lined oak cabinets. The two story great room with it’s custom fireplace boasts a cathedral ceiling and a beautiful wall of windows overlooking the sprawling, private yard and brick paver patio. Custom built-in desk and wall units create a cozy office off the kitchen. So many more unique features you just have to see to believe! Could easily be expanded to over 6000 sq.ft. BATVAI

OPEN HOUSE: SUNDAY FEB. 10, 2019 12pm-2pm | 164 BALDWIN Road

BaldwinRd164

http://tours.mixedmediaco.com/115321/164-baldwin-birmingham-mi-48009

OPEN HOUSE:164 BALDWIN Road, Birmingham 48009-1356
SUNDAY FEB. 10, 2019 12pm-2pm
4 BD 2.1 BA 2844 SQ FT
MLS# 218101342 $995,000

Stunning, peaceful location in the most sought after area in Birmingham. This gorgeous home backs up to the Rouge River and is just steps away through trails to the Waterfall and Quarton Lake Park. Spacious and sprawling, this home has unique features such as copper gutters, refinished original hardwood floors throughout entire home, Pewabic tile foyer floor and fireplace surround, and eco friendly dyed cement baths. Dual staircases and a high-end gourmet kitchen with exquisite Vermont Verde Antique marble countertops, new stainless steel appliances and custom lined oak cabinets. The two story great room with it’s custom fireplace boasts a cathedral ceiling and a beautiful wall of windows overlooking the sprawling, private yard and brick paver patio. Custom built-in desk and wall units create a cozy office off the kitchen. So many more unique features you just have to see to believe! Could easily be expanded to over 6000 sq.ft. BATVAI

OPEN HOUSE SCHEDULE JANUARY 26 & 27

SAT & SUN 164 BALDWIN Road, Birmingham 48009
Saturday Jan 26th 1pm-3pm
Sunday Jan 27th 12pm-2pm

BaldwinOH
http://tours.mixedmediaco.com/115321/164-baldwin-birmingham-mi-48009

Stunning, peaceful location in the most sought after area in Birmingham. This gorgeous home backs up to the Rouge River and is just steps away through trails to the Waterfall and Quarton Lake Park. Spacious and sprawling, this home has unique features such as copper gutters, refinished original hardwood floors throughout entire home, Pewabic tile foyer floor and fireplace surround, and eco friendly dyed cement baths. Dual staircases and a high-end gourmet kitchen with exquisite Vermont Verde Antique marble countertops, new stainless steel appliances and custom lined oak cabinets. The two story great room with it’s custom fireplace boasts a cathedral ceiling and a beautiful wall of windows overlooking the sprawling, private yard and brick paver patio. Custom built-in desk and wall units create a cozy office off the kitchen. So many more unique features you just have to see to believe! Could easily be expanded to over 6000 sq.ft. BATVAI


7605 DEVINS Ridge, Independence Twp 48348
Sunday Jan. 27th 1pm-3pm

DevinsRidge

BRIDGE VALLEY FAMILY RESORT ALL ON 1.5 ACRE LOT. ESTATE BOASTS 5 BEDROOMS. 2 OWNER SUITES WITH PRIVATE BATHS, JETTED JACUZZI AND SHOWERS.TWO STORY GREAT ROOM WITH SURROUND SOUND,GORGEOUS BUILT INS,FIELDSTONE GAS FIREPLACE AND LARGE WINDOWS FOR BEAUTIFUL VIEWS OF NATURE. OPEN CONCEPT KITCHEN PERFECT FOR ENTERTAINING. HOME HAS GRANITE AND TILE BATHS THROUGHOUT. CUSTOMIZED LAUNDRY AND MUDD ROOM WITH GRANITE SINK, CABINET AND CUBBIES. LOWER LEVEL IS A FINISHED WALK OUT WITH LARGE FAMILYROOM,SURROUND SOUND, STONE GAS FIREPLACE,BUILT IN CABINETRY,FULL BATH,AMPLE STORAGE. EXTERIOR HAS AN IN GROUND HEATED 36×18 POOL WITH DIVING BOARD, BREATHLESS LANDSCAPING,AND AMPLE YARD TO PLAY. Much, much more. BATVAI

What’s Going On With Home Prices?

Blog Home prices

According to CoreLogic’s latest Home Price Insights Report, national home prices in August were up 5.5% from August 2017. This marks the first time since June 2016 that home prices did not appreciate by at least 6.0% year-over-year.

CoreLogic’s Chief Economist Frank Nothaft gave some insight into this change,

“The rise in mortgage rates this summer to their highest level in seven years has made it more difficult for potential buyers to afford a home. The slackening in demand is reflected in the slowing of national appreciation, as illustrated in the CoreLogic Home Price Index.

National appreciation in August was the slowest in nearly two years, and we expect appreciation to slow further in the coming year.”

One of the major factors that has driven prices to accelerate at a pace of between 6-7% over the past two years was the lack of inventory available for sale in many areas of the country. This made houses a prized commodity which forced many buyers into bidding wars and drove prices even higher.

According to the National Association of Realtors’ (NAR) latest Existing Home Sales Report, we are starting to see more inventory come to market over the last few months. This, paired with patient buyers who are willing to wait to find the right homes, is creating a natural environment for price growth to slow.

Historically, prices appreciated at a rate of 3.7% (from 1987-1999). CoreLogic predicts that prices will continue to rise over the next year at a rate of 4.7%.

Bottom Line
As the housing market moves closer to a ‘normal market’ with more inventory for buyers to choose from, home prices will start to appreciate at a more ‘normal’ level, and that’s ok! If you are curious about home prices in your area, let’s get together to chat about what’s going on!

Open House Schedules for the weekend of October 13 and 14!

OPEN HOUSE
📣 4021 COMMERCE Road, Orchard Lake 48324 with Chris on Sunday 1 PM to 4 PM

http://tours.mixedmediaco.com/83581/4021-commerce-rd-west-bloomfield-township-mi-48324

218010679
Seller will entertain offers between $2,000,000 – $2,350,000. The pictures are good but you need to see this house to experience it. Overlooking the most sought after lake in Michigan, is this Aspen inspired gem. Breathtaking views of the lake from every room, the entire back of the house is glass. Spectacular unconventional design, two grand staircases with wood/iron detailing, and an elevator that goes to all 3 levels. Soaring 2 story Great Room with detailed moldings, floor to ceiling windows. Barrel roof and wood trim detailing in family room and spacious library with gorgeous Brazilian hardwood floors and 3 walls of bay windows. Amazing kitchen with Cherry LaFata cabinets, enormous granite island with second sink, SS top-of-the-line appliances including Thermador 8 burner oven/stove. Grand master suite with his/hers closets, huge bath with euro shower, separate jetted tub, his/hers vanities with space left over for a couch! Two other En-suites with walk-in closets

OPEN HOUSE
📣 3007 N. Vermont Royal Oaks with Chris on Saturday 12 PM to 2 PM and Leslie on Sunday 2 PM to 4 PM

http://nexthomecityrealty.com/listings/0,130184/3007-North-Vermont-Avenue-Royal-Oak-MI-48073/

218075412
Immaculate Royal Oak brick bungalow in popular Red Run Heights neighborhood just blocks away from Red Run Golf Club and Red Run Park. This move-in ready 3 bedrooms home has 2 full baths, all beautifully updated in 2015. Kitchen offers granite counter tops, stainless steel appliances and ceramic floors. Beautiful hardwood floors on main level with a spacious family room that includes a gas fireplace and tons of natural light. Spacious Master bedroom has beautiful master bath and lots of closet space. Large finished basement for additional living space. Fully landscaped fenced in back yard with mature trees and large deck, perfect for outdoor entertaining. Welcome to your new home! Licensed agent must be present at all showings.

OPEN HOUSE
📣 4224 Coastal Parkway, White Lake Township with Paul on Sunday 3 PM to 5 PM

http://nexthomecityrealty.com/listings/0,132920/4224-Coastal-Parkway-White-Lake-Township-MI-48386/

218096091

No need to go any further north, this custom built colonial feels like a vacation destination. Spectacular lake views of quiet, serene Fully’s lake from every room. Soaring great room with 20′ tall windows that offer gorgeous sunset views. Open and airy floor plan creates the perfect entertaining space. Large kitchen with stainless steel appliances, ceramic tile backsplash and large island with seating. Separate breakfast area with sliding glass doors to one of 2 covered decks. First floor master bedroom with lake views and private deck, ensuite with marble bath and his/hers closets. Upstairs boasts beautiful elevated views from the bridge overlooking great room, and two large bedrooms connected by a jack/jill bath. One bedroom also has sliding doors that lead out to a private covered deck. Lower level has a family room with gas fireplace, dining area, library/den, sewing room and huge recreation area with wet bar. All that and still tons of storage room. BATVAI

OPEN HOUSE
📣 102 E Hickory Grove, Bloomfield on Sunday with Paul
12 PM to 2 PM

http://tours.mixedmediaco.com/97431/102-east-hickory-grove-bloomfield-hills-mi-48304

Totally renovated in the last few years. Gorgeous new kitchen with white wood cabinets with soft close doors, quartz countertops and patterned aluminum backsplash. New laminate floor that looks like ceramic tile! Refinished, original wood floors on first floor, new carpet upstairs and in lower level, new Theratru doors and Oxbow windows. Freshly painted in soft, neutral palate. Updated baths. Upstairs bath is a European “wet room” which makes it 100% waterproof! Barrier free shower and euro modern fixtures. Three spacious bedrooms. Lower level is partially finished with small bar area and large rec. room. One car shared garage. Private rear patio. Furnace has had major overhaul, only the body is old. Amazing location!! Close to downtown Birmingham and easy access to I-75 too. Award winning Bloomfield Hills schools.

OPEN HOUSE
📣 807 E Fourteen Mile, Birmingham with Paul on Sunday 10 AM to 12 PM

http://nexthomecityrealty.com/listings/0,130334/807-East-Fourteen-Mile-Road-Birmingham-MI-48009/

218075978
Charming Birmingham ranch with tons of potential! Open and spacious floor plan. Two generous bedrooms and a beautiful tiled bathroom. Kitchen boasts lovely blue tiled accents, and all appliances stay! Back door opens to small deck overlooking the large, grassy yard. Oversized one car garage with tons of storage. Ideal location close to downtown Birmingham with it’s shops, restaurants, markets and activities. Nearby Woodward and access to freeways make your commute quick and easy.

OPEN HOUSE📣608 Amelia Avenue, Royal Oak with Chris on Saturday 2:30 PM to 4:30 PM
http://nexthomecityrealty.com/listings/0,133437/608-Amelia-Avenue-Royal-Oak-MI-48073/

218100239
Fabulous freshly painted Bi-Level home with tons of updates! Gorgeous new kitchen with neutral granite countertops, ceramic tile floor, glass backsplash and newer Refrigerator. Huge living room and separate family room with beautiful hardwood floors. 3 spacious bedrooms all with original hardwood floors and custom blinds. Spacious, updated bath. Large fenced yard with perennial gardens and new retaining wall around lower patio. Ideal location close to quaint downtown Clawson’s shopping and restaurants, and easy access to malls and expressways. This one won’t last long!

The True Cost of NOT Owning Your Home

Blog Not owningOwning a home has great financial benefits, yet many continue to rent! Today, let’s look at the financial reasons why owning a home of your own has been a part of the American Dream for the entirety of America’s existence.

Realtor.com reported that:

“Buying remains the more attractive option in the long term – that remains the American dream, and it’s true in many markets where renting has become really the shortsighted option…as people get more savings in their pockets, buying becomes the better option.”

What proof exists that owning is financially better than renting?
1. In a previous blog, we highlighted the top 5 financial benefits of homeownership:

Homeownership is a form of forced savings.
Homeownership provides tax savings.
Homeownership allows you to lock in your monthly housing cost.
Buying a home is cheaper than renting.
No other investment lets you live inside of it.
2. Studies have shown that a homeowner’s net worth is 44x greater than that of a renter.

3. Less than a month ago, we explained that a family that purchased an average-priced home at the beginning of 2018 could build more than $49,000 in family wealth over the next five years.

4. Some argue that renting eliminates the cost of taxes and home repairs, but every potential renter must realize that all the expenses the landlord incurs are already baked into the rent payment – along with a profit margin!

Bottom Line
Owning your home has many social and financial benefits that cannot be achieved by renting.

Where Are Mortgage Interest Rates Headed In 2019?

Blog NMort rateThe interest rate you pay on your home mortgage has a direct impact on your monthly payment; the higher the rate, the greater the payment will be. That is why it is important to know where rates are headed when deciding to start your home search.

Below is a chart created using Freddie Mac’s U.S. Economic & Housing Marketing Outlook. As you can see, interest rates are projected to increase steadily over the course of the next year.

Blog Mort rate2

How Will This Impact Your Mortgage Payment?
Depending on the amount of the loan that you secure, a half of a percent (.5%) increase in interest rate can increase your monthly mortgage payment significantly.

According to CoreLogic’s latest Home Price Index, national home prices have appreciated 6.2% from this time last year and are predicted to be 5.1% higher next year.

If both the predictions of home price and interest rate increases become a reality, families would wind up paying considerably more for their next homes.

Bottom Line
Even a small increase in interest rate can impact your family’s wealth, so don’t wait until next year! Let’s get together to evaluate your ability to purchase your dream home now.

Should I Buy Now? Or Wait Until Next Year? [INFOGRAPHIC]

Blog Buy now

Some Highlights:
The cost of waiting to buy is defined as the additional funds it would take to buy a home if prices & interest rates were to increase over a period of time.
Freddie Mac predicts interest rates to rise to 5.2% by the third quarter of 2019.
CoreLogic predicts home prices to appreciate by 5.1% over the next 12 months.
If you are ready and willing to buy your dream home, find out if you are able to!

Open House Schedule this weekend September 29 to 30!

This week highlights 4 properties including a new listing!

http://nexthomecityrealty.com/open-houses/
📣 3798 Newport Way Drive, Waterford Twp 48329 on Sunday with Steve K
12 PM to 2 PM

BIRCHWAY (8)

Come see this beautiful open floor plan Snug Harbour Ranch featuring 85′ on All Sports LOON LAKE. Enjoy privacy and security in this private gated community. This is a perfect home for entertaining with its huge kitchen and Great Room spaces. Relax in your Master Bedroom with beautiful lake views. Your ensuite features ceramic tile, a large soaking tub and glass walk-in shower. Enjoy awesome summer activities in your FINISHED 2000+ sqft walk out basement. This space will amaze you with it’s versatility and charm. Your glass block custom built bar will be enjoyed by everyone. The oversize lower level bedroom and full bath is perfect for your summer activities. Your garage is listed as a 3 car. You’ll find that and much more making this space perfect for a car enthusiast.
📣 39153 University Dr. Sterling Heights, 48310 on Sunday with Steve F.
1 PM to 3 PM

BIRCHWAY (9)

Move right in! Beautiful updated ranch in sought after area. Gorgeous dark Hardwood floors throughout most of home. Open to the family room, the Kitchen boasts neutral ceramic tile, light oak cabinets and a generous eating area. Nearby wet bar offers easy entertaining. Grand family room with gorgeous stone gas fireplace, hardwood floors, cathedral ceiling and double doors leading out to the brick paver patio. Don’t miss the spacious bedrooms and updated baths with granite countertops. Lower level has a recreation room complete with gas fireplace and another wet bar for entertaining. Tons of storage too! Private, fenced back yard with hot tub and beautiful landscaping. All this and a convenient location close to shops, restaurants and entertainment. BATVAI
📣 4021 COMMERCE Road, Orchard Lake 48324 with Chris
Saturday at 2 PM to 5 PM
Sunday at 12 PM to 3 PM

BIRCHWAY (3)
Seller will entertain offers between $2,000,000 – $2,350,000. The pictures are good but you need to see this house to experience it. Overlooking the most sought after lake in Michigan, is this Aspen inspired gem. Breathtaking views of the lake from every room, the entire back of the house is glass. Spectacular unconventional design, two grand staircases with wood/iron detailing, and an elevator that goes to all 3 levels. Soaring 2 story Great Room with detailed moldings, floor to ceiling windows. Barrel roof and wood trim detailing in family room and spacious library with gorgeous Brazilian hardwood floors and 3 walls of bay windows. Amazing kitchen with Cherry LaFata cabinets, enormous granite island with second sink, SS top-of-the-line appliances including Thermador 8 burner oven/stove. Grand master suite with his/hers closets, huge bath with euro shower, separate jetted tub, his/hers vanities with space left over for a couch! Two other En-suites with walk-in closets. BATVAI
📣 12915 Scott Road, Springfield Twp on Saturday with Gayle
12 PM to 2 PM

BIRCHWAY (10)

Pride of Ownership shows. 4 bedroom 2 1/2 bath home on a beautiful 2.63 acres. First floor owners suite with updated master bath. Open, airy first floor with kitchen and eating area. Beautiful views from inside and out. Large deck off great room. Two car attached garage. Full unfinished basement with 8′ ceilings ready for your personal touch. Home has three outbuildings. BATVAI